What is keyhole excavation Archaeology?

What are keyhole excavations?

Keyhole Excavation: means the operation of using a coring device to cut a circular hole through the roadway pavement, sidewalk, or other hard surface to allow the intact core of pavement to be extracted, and the removal of underlying material from the ground by water or air vacuum excavation method, and its disposal.

What are the three methods of excavation?

Each process may require different tools and techniques to ensure you can safely complete your task.

  • Bridge Excavation. …
  • Borrow Excavation. …
  • Channel Excavation. …
  • Drainage Excavation. …
  • Dredge Excavation. …
  • Stripping. …
  • Earth Excavation. …
  • Muck Excavation.

What are the methods of archaeological excavation?

Techniques used to find a site may include remote sensing (for example, by aerial photography), soil surveys, and walk-through or surface surveys. The digging of shovel tests, augured core samples and, less commonly, trenches may also be used to locate archaeological sites.

What is excavation in archaeological terms?

Excavation is the act or process of digging, especially when something specific is being removed from the ground. Archaeologists use excavation to find artifacts and fossils. There are many types of excavation, but they all involve digging holes in the earth.

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What is step trench excavation Archaeology?

Definition of step trench

: a trench cut in a series of steps from the base to the top of a mound for determining the cultural levels of an archaeological site.

What are the two main types of excavation?

Types of Excavation

  • Earth excavation is removal of the layer of soil immediately under the topsoil and on top of rock. …
  • Muck excavation is removal of material that contains an excessive amount of water and undesirable soil. …
  • Unclassified excavation is removal of any combination of topsoil, earth, rock, and muck.

What are two types of excavation techniques?

A trench is a type of excavation that is generally deeper than it is wide at the top.


  • Shielding.
  • Shoring.
  • Benching.
  • Battering.

What is Type D excavation?

Structure excavation for footings at locations not shown as structure excavation (Type D) and where ground or surface water is encountered is paid for as structure excavation (bridge).

How is archaeological excavation different from archaeological survey?

In contrast to the survey’s broad outlook, the excavation focuses on the individual site. This line of fieldwork allows the archaeologist to plumb the depths of a given site in greater detail. As one digs down through the layers at a site, there is the opportunity to document the stratigraphy of the site.

What is surface excavation?

surface excavation is simply the excavation of surface soil up to a depth of 150 to 200 CM. Surface excavation is mainly used for civil construction and geotechnical purposes. The soil exposed to climatic conditions is analyzed with RS2 for stress deformation, surface design, and stability of the soil.

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How is archaeological excavation destructive?

Archaeological excavation is an unrepeatable process, since the same area of the ground cannot be excavated twice. Thus, archaeology is often known as a destructive science, where you must destroy the original evidence in order to make observations.

Why is excavation important in archaeology?

When artifacts are removed, a piece of America’s story—one that we all have a right to share and understand—is gone forever. When trained professionals excavate a site, they make sure no significant information is lost. The artifacts remain available to the public for research, education, and interpretation.

Why do archaeologists excavate?

For these reasons, archaeologists generally excavate only when there is a threat of destruction or when they may reveal vital information about past cultures. And they usually excavate only a small part of any site.

Why is excavation done?

Excavations can be classified, from the point of view of their purpose, as planned, rescue, or accidental. Most important excavations are the result of a prepared plan—that is to say, their purpose is to locate buried evidence about an archaeological site.